TY - JOUR
T1 - The equations of ametropia: Predicting myopia
JO - Journal of Optometry
T2 -
AU - Gaya,Francisco
AU - Medina,Antonio
SN - 18884296
M3 - 10.1016/j.optom.2021.08.001
DO - 10.1016/j.optom.2021.08.001
UR - https://www.journalofoptometry.org/en-the-equations-ametropia-predicting-myopia-articulo-S1888429621000479
AB - Why myopia develops, why it is reaching epidemic proportions and what is its cause are questions that puzzle many people. There is an answer to these questions and it is a simple one. This paper makes the connection between ametropic and in particular myopic development and theory to come with a summary of what we know about myopia and its governing equation.Key experiments, involving myopia and the effect of lenses in humans and animals have been done with unmistakable results. The observed effect of lenses implies a feedback mechanism. Feedback theory explains those results with mathematical precision. Disruption of emmetropization, is the mechanism behind ametropia and particularly myopia.Feedback theory for emmetropization was derived by observation of the input and output of the emmetropization feedback system in many patients. We show that it has the same equation as it is derived here independently from simple homeostasis principles.Classical observations and recent clinical studies have shown the association of many variables with myopia. They include near work, atropine, lenses, blur and outdoors versus indoors activities. We propose that human refractive development is controlled by homeostasis and based on that alone we derive the equation for the calculation of refraction for any patient and the effect of lenses.We provide software to calculate the refraction of any individual at any time.The editor of this journal makes the following statement: “This manuscript is intended for scientific discussion rather than clinical application. The present work does not intend to promote clinical under correction or no correction of myopia. Instead, clinicians should follow current clinical myopia management guidelines."
ER -